Pest Update: Cabbage Maggot

Thursday, May 16, 2024


With the warm weather finally arriving, it's important to pay attention to when insect pests will become active so that control measures can be implemented. Cabbage maggot (Delia radicum) is a particular challenge in brassica crop production. It overwinters in the pupal stage, emerging in the spring, usually coinciding with the bloom of yellow rocket and serviceberry. From a growing degree day perspective, emergence begins around 161 Growing Degree Days (GDD) at a base of 4°C, with peak flight occurring around 250 GDD for the first generation of cabbage maggot. As of Thursday May 16, 2024, 172 GDD (base 4°C) have accumulated in Brooklyn Corner. If you would like to check how many GDD have accumulated in your area go to Perennia’s Farm Data Tools website. Once there, you can make a free account and access the Farm Weather tool. From the Farm Weather tool map, select a station close to you, which will bring up the GDD calculator as well as current weather condition at that station.

Cabbage maggot feeding on roots. 
Other Delia species, Delia platura (seedcorn maggot), Delia antigua (onion maggot) and Delia florilega (bean seed maggot) are also on the move in the Valley. Once the first generation of adults has emerged in the spring, they take flight and lay their eggs. It is important to know when peak flight is taking place so that you have the opportunity to alter planting times or deploy control measures, such as insect netting, accordingly.  For scouting purposes, eggs can usually be found small clumps on the soil around the base of your seedlings.

May Newsletter

Friday, May 3, 2024

 Upcoming Events

Below is a summary of some of the industry events that are coming up in the next few weeks! The events listed below are primarily hosted by Perennia, and more information on each of them can be found here.
  • TunnelTalk
    • May 1 - Biological Spray Programs w Sonny Murray
    • June 13 - Greenhouse Ventilation w Matthew Kleinhenz
    • July 10 - Implementing Commercially Available Bio-Control Agents
    • August 14 - Expert Panel Discusses Greenhouse Structures
  • David Vantage Pro 2 Weather Station Maintenance Workshop - Cape John
    • Join us and learn how to properly care for your Davis Vantage Pro 2 weather station! During this in-person workshop, we’ll discuss the Davis recommended annual maintenance steps, and some common trouble shooting. We will also cover how to access your station’s data. 
    • Future sessions in Murray Siding, and Kentville
  • In-Person Pesticide Applicator Courses (Advertised by the NSDA)
    • May 14 @ Berwick Legion Hall
    • May 16 @ Truro
    • May 21 @ New Germany 
    • Reach out to your local NSDA Ag Rep for more information!

NSDA Program Updates

Get Growing Program - newly opened!

The Get Growing Program supports small farms in adopting specialized infrastructure and equipment. The program helps with the expansion of local agricultural production for local markets.

Program opening: 18 April 2024
Application deadline: 30 September 2024
Claim deadline: 31 December 2024

Examples of previously-funded projects from Appendix A include:

Weather Updates

Lets take a look at the weather data collected for this year, and how it compares to our historical records! Growing degree days (GDD) are important for anticipating key dates for crop growth stages, as well as pest emergence and flights. Consider some of the most persistent critters on your farm, and when they typically start to show up. Even if we are still early in the season, its a good reminder to revisit those dates, and think about what needs to happen to prepare for them to limit the impact they have on your farm. 

Figure 1. Degree day accumulation as of April 29, 2024. All data are taken from the Environment and Climate Change Canada weather station located at the Kentville Research and Development Centre, provided by Jeff Franklin. 

Table 1. Degree day accumulations as of April 29, 2024. All data are taken from the Environment and Climate Change Canada weather station located at the Kentville Research and Development Centre. Calculations are based on a start date of March 1, and calculated using the single-sine method. Provided by Jeff Franklin.

Remember the pest update for leek moth for the April newsletter? Reports from Keene Valley in New York show that their first leek moth of the season was found April 25. This area has a similar latitude to that of Nova Scotia, so keep your eyes peeled! 

Seasonal Considerations: Frost Tolerance and Protection

Provided by Matthew Peill, Acting Vegetable Specialist

With overnight temperatures dropping low in the last week or so, we wanted to send out a reminder on the frost tolerance of early season vegetable crops. These temperatures should serve as a guideline to assist with decisions as to when frost protection needs to be implemented in order to protect this year's plants.

With wide ranges of temperatures experienced from farm to farm within short distances of one another, it's important to check your closest weather station for the most accurate information.   


Overall asparagus is very cold hardy, but emerged spears can be damaged to by frost. Spears can withstand temperature down to -2°C for short periods, but temperatures below this can cause damage.  


Brassicas in general are cold hardy but there are differences between types. Cabbage and kale and are fairly hardy and can withstand temperatures of -10°C for short periods of time. Broccoli and cauliflower are less hardy and can be damaged when temperatures drop below -5°C 


Garlic is very cold hardy, even garlic with well-developed tops can withstand freezing temperatures for short periods down to -10°C without damage. Established onion are also quite frost tolerant with most varieties able to handle -4°C. However, onion seedlings can sustain damage when temperature hit 0oC.  

Frost Protection: 

There are a limited number of frost protectants in vegetable crops. For most large scale planting of vegetables it infeasible to use frost protections, but for small scale production susceptible crops row covers can be used during significant cold periods to provide protection. For protected producers, make sure your side vents are down before a cold night approaches, and consider row cover in extreme situations where heating is not an option.

Production Tidbits: The Value of Environmental Sensors

The information gathered from temperature and humidity sensors in any protected growing space is invaluable. Outdoor conditions are typically amplified under cover, so we cannot strictly rely on what we are seeing from local outdoor stations to know, and make decisions on, how to manage the growing environment. Ideally our temperature sensor is going to have the ability to upload information to your phone or device of choice. This provides the freedom to check on the greenhouse, without physically having to be there and cause disruption to your order of entry protocols. These types of sensors usually have the ability to set upper, and lower, limits as well, triggering a notification to be sent once we are in a zone where conditions are above or below their ideal values. 

Identifing imbalances in the greenhouse, before the crop shows us there is something wrong, is one of the key reasons to install sensors in the greenhouse. Plants are highly sensitive to mismatched growing conditions (ex. high humidity and low temperatures), and we can see poor quality, low yielding plants as a result. Take a look at figure 2 below. The highest temperatures of the day are paired with the lowest humidities, and vice versa, which is not the ideal scenario. We are also seeing huge swings in both of these values throughout the course of the day, putting unnecessary stress on the crop to constantly adapt to new conditions. Ideally the gray line would be more consistently in the range of the light green band running through the middle of the graph, which indicates a well-matched temperature and humidity. Situations like this should be addressed as soon as possible. If left unchecked, this can significantly reduce the yield of your crop, and quality of your produce. 

Figure 2. An image depicting temperature and humidity measured over a 48 hour time-span. The gray line represents the vapour pressure deficit, or VPD value.

For the situations where we aren't constantly checking our growing conditions, sensors with a capacity to store historical information make it easier for diagnosis oddities down the line. Say for example, you have a tomato crop that has a noticeable gap in fruit production in week 35. This historical information may point to a high temperature event which lead to poor pollination and/or fruit abortion, resulting in a consistent die-back of tomato flowers. On the other end of the spectrum, our string of cold nights in the previous week could have an impact on some newly emerging tissue, that may not be obvious until further down the line. 

Feature Pest/Disease
In Nova Scotia, striped cucumber beetles (yellow-green, about 6 mm long, with three black stripes down the back) are most common. They typically make their annual debut in the Annapolis Valley end of May, early June.  These pests are problematic in many ways:
  • Feeding damage can stunt plants
  • Predated flowers reduce fruit set and yield
  • Scarring on fruit by adult beetles reduce the marketability of the crop. 
  • Cucumber beetles vector bacterial wilt. 
Bacterial Wilt:

Bacterial Wilt is caused by the bacteria Erwinia tracheiphila, which overwinter in the gut of cucumber beetles. They are picked up by insect feeding on infected plants, then is transmitted to new plants through feeding wounds created by the beetles. The bacteria spreads quickly once introduced to the plant, and there is no way to control the disease once its been introduced. This pathogen can cause significant losses in cucumber and musk melon. It can infect squash and pumpkin, but typically to a lesser degree. 

What does it look like:
Initially presents as wilting tissue during the day that recovers at night. Leaf margins eventually turn yellow/brown, and the plant is unable to recover, leaving a permanently wilted leaf/plant. One way to distinguish between this and other wilt-causing agents is to do a bacterial stream testCut through stem tissue on your cucurbit, pushing the newly cut edges together and then slowly pulling them apart is a great way to start identifying the causal agent. 

Figure 3. A cucumber plant that was diagnosed with bacterial wilt. 

Figure 4. Bacterial 'streaming' observed in a canteloupe stem (Photo Credit: University of Minnesota Extension)

As always, your Perennia specialist and/or Plant Health Lab are happy to help you through the identification process if you have some unhappy plants cropping up. 
Early season control of cucumber beetle is essential for limiting the direct (feeding) and indirect (bacterial wilt) impacts on your crop. Regular scouting is crucial to properly identify the risk period on your farm. Cucumber beetle control should be implemented as soon as seedlings emerge. Newly emerging cucurbit plants are particularly susceptible to stunting and bacterial wilt, while older plants can withstand up to 25% defoliation. Early treatment is essential for beetle management.

Treatment options:
Applications of foliar insecticides may be required during peak beetle activity. Row covers and/or insect nettings are very effective means of excluding cucumber beetles in pesticide free or organic production. Covers should be placed overtop of plants as soon as they are growing outdoors, and uncover when plants begin to bloom. Delayed removal of the cover will impact pollination and fruit set. 

Some longer-term strategies for managing this insect include rotate your cucurbit crops, and rely on transplants instead of directed seeding to protect the plant during its most vulnerable stages. For additional options, check out this summary on managing cucumber beetles from eOrganic. 
Click here for Perennia's Pest Management Guides. If you haven't had a chance to play around with our newly formatted guides, our team hosted a webinar on how to navigate the tool and showcased some of its capabilities. You can find it in the "Recent Uploads' section below if you need a refresher. 

Recent Uploads

That's all for now! If you have any questions, feel free to reach out to your extension specialist.

Happy growing everyone!

April Newsletter

Thursday, March 28, 2024

Upcoming Events

Below is a summary of some of the industry events that are coming up in the next few weeks! The events listed below are primarily hosted by Perennia, and more information on each of them can be found here.
  • TunnelTalk
    • April 3 - Pollination w. Andrea Keddy
    • May 1 - Biological Spray Programs w Sonny Murray
    • June 13 - Greenhouse Ventilation w Matthew Kleinhenz
  • Horticulture Nova Scotia presents 'Soil Moisture Tools' (In person!) - April 9, 2024
    • Focus on field production
  • Introducing Perennia's Online Pest Management Guides - April 10, 2024
  • Introductory Sprayer Training (In person!)
    • April 11 from 9-12 in Coldbrook
    • April 18 from 9-12 in Bible Hill
    • April 25 from 9-12 in Mabou 

Program Updates

On Farm Climate Action Fund (OFCAF) Extended Funding for 2024-2025!
Perennia is excited to announce that our agreement with AAFC for an additional year of programming has been solidified! Applications for 2024 will open Monday, March 4. This is an extension of the program that was offered in 2022 and 2023, so we are still focused on supporting implementation relating to these three best management practices:
    Nitrogen Management
    Cover Cropping
    Rotational Grazing

For any questions about OFCAF, your eligibility, or anything else program related, reach out to our OFCAF technical lead, Georgia Lewis!

Agriculture Research and Innovation Program

The Agricultural Research and Innovation Program supports applied research and innovation activities, as well as on-farm trials that are intended to improve production, productivity, profitability, competitiveness and sustainability of Nova Scotia’s agricultural sectors. 

On-Farm Trials

Farmer/industry-led demonstration trials will evaluate new farm technologies or practices that will lead to enhanced economic and environment sustainability. The key priorities are: 1)Sector driven field and farm trials, 2) innovative equipment trials, 3) soil and water management enhancement trials. 

Eligible Applicants:
  • Farms
  • Agricultural Industry Association 
  • Industry Organizations
For more information on this program, check out the program website!

Seasonal Considerations

While pests wake up from a long, cosy winter, we should be getting locked and loaded with our scouting and monitoring plans for the season. Early detection is crucial for managing problems before they get out of hand, and its a good way to force checks of the crop on a regular basis!

Sticky cards are a fabulous tool. We are looking to see when things start getting stuck, as well as where in the greenhouse. Over time, we can begin to notice trends in where the hotspots for insect presence are, as well as when they typically start to show up. That information will help us better target our preventative sprays and release of beneficial organisms. Biological-based solutions are best suited for implementation before the problem gets out of hand, and scouting/record keeping our the only ways we are going to be able to really hit our target times and maximize our time and energy executing management strategies. While replacement of sticky cards is recommended on a regular basis, the use of a coloured marker can be a good way to keep track of who is new on the sticky card scene. 

Figure 1. Blue and yellow sticky tape installed under tabletop strawberries. 

Production Tidbits: Cultural Practices in IPM

We've all heard about the concept of integrated pest management (IPM) as it relates to horticulture production. This month I want to focus on some of the preventative/cultural checks that should translate to reduced movement of pests and disease onto the farm, across the farm, and leaving the farm. 

1) Consider order of entry throughout the day for people, equipment, tools and harvest bins

Greenhouses (including tunnels, cold frames, caterpillars etc) are very good at amplifying both the good and the bad of production. As it turns out, disease also really enjoy warm, humid, protected places. One of the ways we can reduce the pressure in a tunnel is to try and prevent the introduction in the first place. Germination greenhouses, or places with young plants, should be one of the first stops of the day. The oldest plants, or the ones of least value, should be visited at the end of the day. Those who have been in the field, working on outdoor crops, are ideally not going back into that germination space with our most susceptible plants. Assigning staff to various greenhouses, or various parts of the farm, may be the best way to think about this. 

This is effective, but also very heard to implement regularly on a farm with multiple fields, greenhouses, office, eating and packing spaces. Implementing this imperfectly, as opposed to not at all, is still progress and will hopefully result in a lower biotic stress load in your plants. 

One way to try and reduce the impact of re-entry into more vulnerable spaces is the use of greenhouse-specific clothing and footware. Toss a few pairs of crocs and some stylish coveralls in the greenhouse for you to slide into anytime you enter into the greenhouse. Its fashionable and can significantly slow the movement of soil-borne pathogens into our protected spaces. 

2) Where are we putting our waste? 

Compost piles are the perfect source of infection for the majority of the year. They are warm, moist, and full of food, exactly what the pest doctor ordered! Small gusts of wind are more than sufficient at carrying contaminated tissue, spores, or insects right back into the production area. With a steady stream of inoculum, we are making more work for ourselves to have to come in and manage the pests and disease, as well as pay for our control mechanisms. Take the time and effort to place your plant debris, rotten/damaged produce, and any other waste, far far away from your cash crops. It won't guarantee a disease free year, but it can make your lives significantly easier. 

For those piles that are too big to be moved, prioritize getting a plan in place to deal with the waste. They can be composted, buried, or burnt. For those of you who are having trouble getting the piles up to temperature, try throwing a tarp on top to really get things cooking. 

3) Production area-specific tools

This one gets expensive real fast, but smaller tools like pruners, plant clips, aprons, stakes, pots, etc can be a good first place to aim for! Plant sap is a huge risk when it comes to disease transmission, so containing tools that are in the thick of your plants to designated areas is a good way to try and limit any issues to one space, versus spreading it across the farm. 


Changing practices on farm are never easy, but can pay off in the long run! It's all about giving our registered products and beneficial insects the opportunity to do their jobs well, and make it as easy as possible for them. Continuous, accidental re-inoculation is incredibly hard to curb long term. 

Feature Pest/Disease

This month's feature pest is leek moth! This relatively new pest to NS but made themselves comfortable quickly. They generally have two flights: one early in the spring, and another one later in the summer. 

In 2023, leek moth was first trapped at the end of April in the Annapolis valley. They are nocturnal, so you likely won't see them until window-pane like damage starts cropping up in onions, leeks and garlic. These guys live inside the leaves of onions, boring their way into stems of garlic and leeks, rendering them unmarketable. 

Figure 2. Leek moth and leaf damage - David Fuller, reporting in Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners. 

The best way to monitor for these is using commercially available leek moth traps. In Ontario, research has shown that scouting via pheromone traps was enough to base insecticide applications on. Coming through with your registered products 7-10 days following a peak flight (determined through the use of the trap system), the population and amount of damage can be significantly reduced. 

For those of you leaning away from conventional pesticides, work done in Ontario found that row covers were just as effective as pesticides in reducing plant damage. These covers physically block leek moth adult females from laying eggs on plants. Mark your calendars! Covers should be installed over plants before the adults start flying. which based on last year, is set to happen in a few weeks. 

Recent Uploads

Perennia Updates

Our vegetable specialist Tim Morcom will be taking a leave for the upcoming year, effective April 1. Matthew Peill, Perennia's current Molecular Biologist will be filling in for Tim until he returns Spring 2025. Matthew filled the vegetable and berry specialist positions for 18 months back in 2018, so he has experience with extension in this capacity. He will continue to process virus and nematode samples as they come in, all the while supporting the horticulture industry.

Be sure to reach out ( with any production woes or questions, he's happy to help! 

That's all for now! If you have any questions, feel free to reach out to your extension specialist.

Happy growing everyone!

Perennia Spray Guides

Sunday, March 17, 2024

We have some exciting news!

A few of Perennia's team members have taken on the enormous task of re-formatting our current spray guide layout! We are moving away from the classic word document summaries of all of the products that are listed for a particular commodity group, and towards a more interactive, searchable platform. You still have the capacity to print information if that is your preferred way to access the information, but with now the added flexibility to sort and filter based on exactly what your looking for! 

We will be hosting a full tutorial session coming up at the end of March, so be sure to register for your first look at the new format, and ask any questions you may have.

Hope to see you there!

March 2024 Newsletter

Sunday, March 3, 2024

Upcoming Events

Below is a summary of some of the industry events that are coming up in the next few weeks! The events listed below are primarily hosted by Perennia, and more information on each of them can be found here.

  • Pesticide Information impacting Horticulture and Field Crops - March 5, 2024
  • Nematode and Soil Health Convention - March 7, 2024
  • TunnelTalk
    • March 13- Reviewing the Efficacy of Botrytis control products w. Dr. Anissa Poleatewich
    • April 3 - Pollination w. Andrea Keddy
  • 2024 Berry Primer - March 21, 2024
  • South Shore Ag Day - March 25, 2024
  • Horticulture Nova Scotia presents 'Soil Moisture Tools' - April 9, 2024
    • This will not be a greenhouse-specific event, but should prove valuable for outdoor veg producers!

Program Updates

On Farm Climate Action Fund (OFCAF) Extended Funding for 2024-2025!
Perennia is excited to announce that our agreement with AAFC for an additional year of programming has been solidified! Applications for 2024 will open Monday, March 4. This is an extension of the program that was offered in 2022 and 2023, so we are still focused on supporting implementation relating to these three best management practices:
    Nitrogen Management
    Cover Cropping
    Rotational Grazing

For any questions about OFCAF, your eligibility, or anything else program related, reach out to our OFCAF technical lead, Georgia Lewis!

2023 Season Response Program
This program is intended to support farmers impacted by extreme weather and wildfires in 2023. It builds on other business risk management programs that were available last year, intending to help those still recovering, or who were not covered by other support programs. The new program covers crop damage and yield loss that was a direct result of flooding, excessive preceiptiation or wildfire damage. Other losses such as farm infrastructure, supply losses, and the cost of re-establishing fields may qualify and will be considered. 

 Click here for more details.

Hurricane Fiona Supplemental Relief Program

Seasonal Considerations

With crop planning underway, its important to start thinking about our nutrient management plans and assessing which amendments we want to use this season. We have talked a lot about nitrogen management last year, and the implications to greenhouse soil health when we don't look at the entire breakdown of our amendments. With a heavy emphasis on hitting the target nitrogen levels for our main cash crops, it can be easy to overlook the amount of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sodium that are also being added into the system. Without additional management plans in place, these nutrients will accumulate exponentially in our greenhouse soils, making it increasingly difficult to produce a healthy and productive crop. 

Check out the webinars we hosted with Judson Reid last year talking about this very issue, or our summary fact sheet:

Considering a new supplier of compost this year? Check out our compost analysis fact sheet, which provides a breakdown of what our reports are telling us, and what it means for our farm. 

Production Tidbits: Germination!

A few years ago, I played around with different combinations of heating mats, and domes, to assess their impact on germination uniformity and success. Here's what I found:

For the first round, the room was set to 70F (21C)

Results 7 days post seeding: 

  •     No seeds had germinated in the control treatment, or the heat mat treatment
  •     Staggered germination of 5/36 tomatoes in the plastic dome treatment
  •     Consistent emergence of 29/36 tomatoes in the heat mat + plastic dome treatment

A few other noteworthy comments from the first round:

  • Treatments without a dome were much more prone to drying out compared to those with domes. It required a more frequent application of water to the top of the soil to make sure seeds had the moisture they needed
  • The combination of the heat mat and the plastic dome saw much earlier emergence compared to the plastic dome on its own

For the second round, the room was set to 80F (26.7C) 

Results 7 days post seeding: 

  • 10/36 seeds germinated in the control treatment
  • 0/36 seeds germinated in the heat mat treatment
  • 28/36 tomatoes germinated in the plastic dome treatment
  • 19/36 tomatoes in the heat mat + plastic dome treatment

The plot thickens!

In this round, the added humidity around the seeds was the most beneficial in aiding successful and uniform germination. Because the temperature was considerably higher for this round, the heat mat was not advantageous to germination and likely resulted in the potting mix drying out at an accelerated rate compared to the control treatment. 

What can we take from this?

  • As with any input, it will only be worthwhile if it is implemented appropriately. Adding a heat mat to a cooler temperature germination space will give the seeds the boost they need for more successful emergence. Adding a heat mat to a warm temperature germination space is not going to give you an advantage, because temperature is not the limiting factor in this scenario. 
  • The domes were a very handy tool for creating a more humid space around the seeds, and reducing the amount of water that needed to be added to the system through the process. That being said...the dome should be removed once the majority of the seeds have germinated. Many post-emergence diseases do thrive in warm and wet environments, and we do not want to encourage their establishment. Do not wait for the plants to hit the roof of the dome before removing it. Once you see >60% of those stems and cotyledons break through the soil, it is time to remove the dome. 
  • It is cheaper to heat up a dome/heat mat system than it is to keep an entire greenhouse at 80F for the duration of emergence and early seedling life. 
  • For those of you who have trouble maintaining consistent temperatures in your germination space, consider adding both. From the first round of trialing, the heat mat on its own was not successful at boosting the quality of the transplants. While we did see some plants pop up under the dome treatment, the quality and consistency across treatment 4 (dome + heat mat) was significantly better. 
  • If properly cleaned and stored, heat mats and domes can be re-used from year to year, making the most of your initial investment.

Feature Pest/Disease

With transplant production top of mind, damping off seems like an appropriate choice for this months feature focus. 

Here are a few things we can do to reduce the degree of damping off we see in our seedlings:

1) Use clean potting materials! Seeding trays, carrier trays, domes, heating mats, gloves, shovels, and everything that can be re-used between seasons should be CLEANED before we get started. Ideally this includes a wash with soapy water, left to air dry, then followed by a sterilizing agent, to make sure there are no stow-aways year to year, waiting for fresh young roots to start growing again.

2) Careful moisture monitoring! Potting mixes are notorious for having different water holding capacities. Fine, small particle mixes are very effective at holding onto water for long periods of time, which requires less watering by you. It can also mean that your plant roots are constantly surrounded by water, with no opportunity to dry out or access air-filled pores, making them prone to fungal infection. Larger particle mixes are very good at draining water, meaning your plants may need more frequent water application compared to others. Ideally your potting mix consists of both fine and larger particle sizes, facilitating both drainage and some water holding capacity. 

The colour of the potting mix surface can be misleading in deciding whether or not the plants need more water. The weight of a tray or pot is a great indication of how much water your substrate is holding, and whether more needs to be applied. 

3) Consider preventative product applications! There are many biological based products which have proved very efficacious against early season fungal disease. Agents such as Trichoderma spp. will coat the new roots as they grow, and provide competition for any problematic agents that are also present in your potting mix. These products can be applied multiple times, according to label instructions, during transplant production and at the time of transplanting, so keep your eye out for these if you are wanting the extra assurance for strong, healthy transplants!

4) Make sure that your seeding tray/propagation setup allows for drainage. A substrate that is not allowed to drain will cause more headaches than solutions.

5) Environmental monitoring! Excess humidity, whether that's from standing water on the floor/carrier trays, or through a covering left on too long, can be hugely problematic. We want some humidity to give our plants everything they need as they set the stage for our 2024 crops, but its important to manage water in all parts of your germination space, not just the potting mix itself. 

Recent Uploads

That's all for now! If you have any questions, feel free to reach out to your extension specialist.

Happy growing everyone!